AJAX progress indicator
  • Actual Cost
    Actual Cost (AC) The cost incurred for the work performed on an activity.
  • Agile The term used to describe applying the mindset, values and principles from the Agile Manifesto.
  • Agile manifesto
    Agile Manifesto The official definition of the agile mindset, values and principles.
  • Agile Mindset A way of thinking and behaving that is based on the four values and twelve principles of the Agile Manifesto.
  • Agile Practitioner
    Agile Practitioner A person who embraces the agile mindset and collaborates with like-minded colleagues in cross-functional teams.
  • Analogous Estimating
    Analogous Estimating A technique for estimating the effort, duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
  • Assumption
    Assumption A factor in the planning process considered to be true, or real without any proof or demonstration.
  • Backlog
    Backlog An ordered list of customer focused requirements. Maintained by a team and undertaken to create a product or service.
  • Baseline
    Baseline The approved version of a plan or work product that can be changed using formal change procedures. Used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
  • Benchmarking
    Benchmarking Benchmarking is the process of studying best-in-class external parties, products or processes in the hope that, if appropriate, they can be implemented and used.
  • Bottom-Up Estimating
    Bottom-Up Estimating A method of estimating project effort, duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level elements.
  • Budget at Completion
    Budget at Completion (BAC) The sum of all budgets for the work to be performed.
  • Burndown
    Burndown chart A graph showing the work remaining versus the time left in the sprint/iteration.
  • Burnup chart
    Burnup chart A graph showing the work completed towards the release of the product or service.
  • Change Control Board
    Change Control Board A chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, or rejecting changes to a product or project. Also responsible for recording and communicating these decisions.
  • Change Control System
    Change Control System A set of procedures that describe how modifications to deliverables and documentation will be managed and controlled.
  • Change Request
    Change Request A formal application to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.
  • Code of Accounts
    Code of Accounts A numbering system used to identify component in the work breakdown structure.
  • Communications Management Plan A deliverable that sets out how project information will be shared with project stakeholders. It usually identifies attributes including the objective, format, frequency, and audience for each item.
  • Compliance
    Compliance Compliance involves adhering to standards, laws, regulations, or rules. Failure to adhere to compliance requirements can result in fines, penalties, lawsuits, damage to reputation, etc.
  • Configuration Management System
    Configuration Management System A collection of procedures and processes used to track project artifacts or deliverables and monitor and control changes to these artifacts and deliverables.
  • Constraint
    Constraint A factor that limits the options available for managing a project.
  • Contingency Plan
    Contingency Plan The document describing the actions available to the project team if a predetermined trigger conditions occur.
  • Contingency Reserve
    Contingency Reserve Time or money allocated for known risks with active response strategies.
  • Continuous Improvement
    Continuous Improvement The ongoing watching for ways to improve quality by everyone. It involves observing, taking measurements, improving processes, reducing variations in production or performance, reducing defects, waste, and improving cycle times.
  • Contract
    Contract A legally binding agreement used to acquire products or services. Typically made between two or more parties, where money is exchanged for goods or services. Enforceable by law.
  • Control Account
    Control Account The combination of scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule and then compared to earned value for performance measurement analysis.
  • Corrective Action
    Corrective Action An intentional activity that hopefully realigns performance with the project management plan.
  • Cost Baseline
    Cost Baseline The approved version of work package cost estimates and contingency reserve or backlog estimates used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
  • Cost Management Plan
    Cost Management Plan A component of a project management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, updated, and controlled.
  • Cost Performance Index (CPI)
    Cost Performance Index (CPI) A measure of cost efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
  • Cost Variance (CV)
    Cost Variance (CV) The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time. Calculated as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.
  • Crashing
    Crashing A schedule compression approach used to shorten the schedule for the least incremental cost, often by adding resources.
  • Critical Chain Method
    Critical Chain Method A scheduling approach that places buffers on the project schedule to account for limited resources or uncertainties.
  • Critical Path
    Critical Path The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project network diagram. It determines the shortest possible duration for the project.
  • Critical Path Activity
    Critical Path Activity An activity on the critical path in a project schedule.
  • Critical Path Method
    Critical Path Method An approach to estimate the shortest project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility in the network diagram.
  • Daily Standup
    Daily Scrum A brief, daily collaboration meeting during which the team reviews progress from the previous day, declares intentions for the current day, and highlights any obstacles encountered or anticipated. Also known as daily standup.
  • Decision Tree Analysis
    Decision Tree Analysis A diagramming and calculation approach for analyzing the impacts options in the presence of uncertainty.
  • Decomposition
    Decomposition The technique of dividing and subdividing project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
  • Definition of Done An agreement used mainly in agile approaches defining the minimum set of requirements needed to declare a user story or feature “Done.” For example, all the unit tests must pass, must be accepted by the Product Owner, refactored and team reviewed.
  • Deliverable
    Deliverable A product, output, or outcome that is unique and verifiable. Deliverables must be produced and accepted to consider a project, release or project phase completed. Deliverables can be tangible or intangible.
  • Development Life Cycle
    Development Life Cycle Elements or phases of a project associated with producing the product, service, or result. The development life cycle is performed within the project life cycle.
  • Disciplined Agile (DA) A toolkit and agile, lean and hybrid approaches with guidance on when to use them.
  • Early Finish Date
    Early Finish Date In the critical path method, the earliest possible date when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints.
  • Early Start Date
    Early Start Date In the critical path method, the earliest possible date when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based network logic and any schedule constraints.
  • Earned Value (EV)
    Earned Value (EV) The measure of work completed to date expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work.
  • Earned Value Management
    Earned Value Management An approach that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project progress and performance.
  • ECO Exam Content Outline. The official description of exam scope and format. The exam content outline describes the domains (major themes) and tasks and enablers tested in the exam.
  • Empowerment
    Empowerment Empowerment is the act of giving power or authority to make decisions or perform actions.
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF)
    Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF) Conditions, not under the immediate control of the project team that can influence or constrain the project.
  • Estimate at Completion (EAC)
    Estimate at Completion (EAC) The expected total cost for completing all the work planned. Calculated as the sum of the actual cost to date plus the estimate to complete.
  • Estimate to Complete (ETC)
    Estimate to Complete (ETC) The expected costs for all the remaining project work.
  • Extreme Programming
    Extreme Programming (XP) An agile development approach used in software projects where changes may occur rapidly. XP emphasizes small teams, responding to change and creating high-quality solutions.
  • Fast Tracking
    Fast Tracking A schedule compression approach where activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel - at least for a portion of their duration.
  • Finish-to-Finish
    Finish-to-Finish A logical relationship in which a successor activity or task cannot finish until a predecessor has finished.
  • Finish-to-Start
    Finish-to-Start A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has completed.
  • Fist of Five A team-based voting protocol that uses fingers to indicate support for an idea. It allows for rapid decision-making where there is consensus and the ability to identify and investigate outliers.
  • Gantt Chart
    Gantt Chart A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis and dates are shown on the horizontal axis. Activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates of a calendar shown, usually above the chart.
  • Hawthorne Effect
    Hawthorne Effect The name given to the tendency to alter people?s behavior by measuring their performance on an attribute of work. Named after the General Electric Hawthorne plant where Elton Mayo conducted experiments on worker productivity in the 1920?s and 1930?s. After increasing the lighting brightness(...) Read More
  • Hybrid
    Hybrid A blend of predictive and agile approaches that is considered a non-agile approach. Instead, hybrid is considered fit for purpose.
  • Impediment Something that is blocking the team from making progress or significantly slowing them down. Impediments can be physical such as waiting for a part or materials, dependency related such as waiting for an approval or work by another group to be completed. They can also be skill-related such as(...) Read More
  • Increment
    Increment A completed, tested chunk of functionality, product or service. Usually a subset of the overall project outcome.
  • Information Radiator
    Information Radiator A large display that provides information to the rest of the organization. It enables up-to-the-minute knowledge sharing without having to disturb the team or other stakeholders.
  • Iteration
    Iteration A timeboxed period of development in which the work needed for delivery is completed.
  • Kaizen Events
    Kaizen Events Events aimed at making improvements to a system.
  • Kanban board
    Kanban Board A visualization tool that shows work items in various states. It enables improvements to the flow of work by making bottlenecks and work quantities visible.
  • Kanban Method
    Kanban Method An approach inspired by lean and the original Kanban inventory control system and used specifically for knowledge work.
  • Knowledge Work
    Knowledge Work People who use their skills and knowledge to collaborate, solve problems and build products and services. Roles include professionals in I.T. such as programmers, web designers, analysts and Q.A. positions. Knowledge workers also comprise teachers, pharmacists, accountants, engineers,(...) Read More
  • KPI
    KPI Key Performance Indicator. A metric used to create goals and track performance towards those goals.
  • Lean Development
    Lean Development The adaptation of lean thinking and lean manufacturing principles and practices to any knowledge worker domain. It is based on a set of principles and practices for achieving quality, efficiency, and customer alignment.
  • Lessons Learned
    Lessons Learned The knowledge gained during a project or phase for the purpose of improving future performance.
  • Lifecycle
    Life Cycle The process through which a product is imagined, created, and put into use.
  • Management Reserve
    Management Reserve Time or money set aside and released for unforeseen work that is within the scope of the project.
  • Milestone
    Milestone A significant event or point in a project.
  • OKR
    OKR Objectives and Key Results. A lightweight, flexible metric format for creating and tracking metrics aligned to team and organizational goals.
  • Opportunity
    Opportunity A risk that would have a positive effect on project outcomes or objectives.
  • Organizational Process Assets (OPA)
    Organizational Process Assets (OPA) Plans, policies, processes, procedures, and knowledge stores.
  • Parametric Estimating
    Parametric Estimating An estimating approach which uses an algorithm to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
  • Performance Measurement Baseline
    Performance Measurement Baseline An integrated scope, schedule, and cost baseline that is used for comparison to measure, manage, and control project execution.
  • Persona An actual or composite description of a project stakeholder that captures critical project information such as wants, needs, common uses, pain points and concerns as they relate to the product or service being constructed.
  • Phase Gate
    Phase Gate A review at the end of a phase at which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, or continue with modification, or to end the project.
  • Planned Value (PV)
    Planned Value (PV) The authorized budget assigned to the agreed and scheduled work.
  • Planning Poker Cards
    Planning Poker A group-based estimation approach that uses initially anonymous sizing and subsequent rounds of discussion and reestimation to reach consensus.
  • Probability and Impact Matrix
    Probability and Impact Matrix A table mapping the probability of occurrence of each risk and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
  • Procurement Management Plan
    Procurement Management Plan Part of the project or program management plan that describes how goods and services from outside of the performing organization will be acquired.
  • Product Backlog
    Product Backlog An ordered list of customer-centric requirements for a product.
  • Product Life Cycle
    Product Life Cycle The phases that represent the evolution of a product, from idea through delivery, growth, maturity, and eventually retirement.
  • Product Owner
    Product Owner The person responsible for maximizing the value of the product being created. The Product owner prioritizes the backlog and is accountable for the final product built.
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
    Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) An approach to estimate project duration through a weighted average of optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic activity durations used when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
  • Progressive Elaboration
    Progressive Elaboration The iterative and ongoing process of increasing the level of detail in a plan as greater information and more accurate estimates become available.
  • Project
    Project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or outcome.
  • Project Charter
    Project Charter The document issued by the sponsor to formally authorize a project and provides the project manager with the authority to start work and apply organizational resources.
  • Project Management The application of knowledge and skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project objectives and requirements.
  • Project Management Office (PMO)
    Project Management Office (PMO) A group that optimizes the project-related governance processes and enables the sharing of resources, approaches, tools, and techniques.
  • Project Management Plan
    Project Management Plan The artifact that describes how a project will be initiated, executed, monitored and controlled, and closed.
  • Project Manager
    Project Manager The person assigned by the organization to lead the project team responsible for achieving the project objectives.
  • Project Phase
    Project Phase A collection of logically related activities that result in the completion of one or more deliverables or outcomes.
  • Project Schedule
    Project Schedule An output of a workshop or schedule model that shows linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
  • Project Schedule Network Diagram
    Project Schedule Network Diagram A graphical view of the relationships among the project schedule activities.
  • Project Scope
    Project Scope A list of all the work performed to deliver the project product, service, or outcome. It usually lists all the specified features and functions.
  • Project Scope Statement
    Project Scope Statement The description of the project scope, the major deliverables, and assumptions or constraints.
  • Quality Management Plan
    Quality Management Plan Part of the project or program management plan that explains how policies, procedures, and guidelines will be used to achieve the quality objectives.
  • RACI RACI is an acronym for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed. RACI tables or RACI matrixes are often created on projects to describe who does what.
  • Requirements Traceability Matrix
    Requirements Traceability Matrix A table showing how each product requirement links from its origin to the deliverables that satisfies it.
  • Residual Risk
    Residual Risk The risk that is left over after the agreed risk responses have been implemented.
  • Resource Leveling
    Resource Leveling A resource optimization approach that adjusts the project schedule to optimize the allocation of resources, which may also affect critical path.
  • Resource Management Plan
    Resource Management Plan Part of the project management plan that describes how project resources are obtained, assigned, monitored, and controlled.
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix
    Responsibility Assignment Matrix A table showing which resources are assigned to each work package.
  • Retrospective A workshop used by agile teams to help improve their process. After each sprint/iteration, team members ask what went well, what can we improve, and what do we want to try differently next sprint/iteration?
  • Risk
    Risk An uncertain event or condition that could have either a positive (opportunity) or negative (threat) effect on one or more project objectives.
  • Risk Appetite
    Risk Appetite The amount of uncertainty an individual or organization is willing to accept in anticipation of a reward.
  • Risk Management Plan
    Risk Management Plan Part of the project management plan that describes how risk management activities will be performed.
  • Risk Mitigation
    Risk Mitigation A risk response strategy that decreases the probability of occurrence or impact of a threat.
  • Risk Owner
    Risk Owner The person responsible for monitoring a risk and for selecting and implementing the appropriate risk response strategy.
  • Risk Register
    Risk Register A repository in which the outputs of risk management activities are recorded.
  • Rolling Wave Planning
    Rolling Wave Planning An iterative planning approach in which the near term work is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
  • S-Curve Analysis
    S-Curve Analysis An approach to analyze performance trends from a graph of cumulative costs over time.
  • Scaled Agile Framework
    Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe®) A knowledge base of integrated patterns for enterprise-scale lean/agile development.
  • Schedule Baseline
    Schedule Baseline The approved version of a schedule that may be changed using formal change control procedures. It is used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
  • Schedule Compression
    Schedule Compression An approach to shorten the schedule without reducing the project scope.
  • Schedule Management Plan Part of the project management plan that sets out the criteria and activities for developing, controlling and monitoring the project schedule.
  • Schedule Performance Index
    Schedule Performance Index (SPI) A measure of schedule efficiency that is calculated as the ratio of earned value to planned value.
  • Schedule Variance (SV)
    Schedule Variance (SV) A measure of schedule performance (is the project ahead or behind?) calculated as the difference between the earned value and the planned value.
  • Scope Baseline
    Scope Baseline The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary. Used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
  • Scope Creep
    Scope Creep The uncontrolled expansion or deviation of product or project scope without adjustments to time, cost, or resources.
  • Scope Management Plan
    Scope Management Plan Part of the project or program management plan that describes how scope will be specified, developed, monitored, controlled, and approved.
  • Scrum
    Scrum An agile approach for developing and sustaining products, with specific roles, events, and artifacts.
  • Secondary Risk
    Secondary Risk A risk that arises from applying a risk response.
  • Service Level Agreements A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a contract or commitment between a service provider and a customer/client. SLAs typically cover availability, quality, and responsibilities such as mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair, or mean time to recovery (MTTR).
  • Sponsor
    Sponsor An individual or a group that provides support, funds and resources for the project and is accountable for enabling success.
  • Sprint The Scrum term for an iteration. A fixed period (e.g. two weeks) of development to get an increment of product or service built.
  • Stakeholder Any individual, group, or organization that may affect, be affected by or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project.
  • Stakeholder Engagement Plan
    Stakeholder Engagement Plan Part of the project or program management plan that identifies the approaches and actions required to promote productive participation of stakeholders in project decision making and execution.
  • Stakeholder Register A deliverable that lists all the significant project stakeholders or stakeholder groups along with characteristics about their interests, expectations, concerns, impact, influence, etc.
  • Start-to-Finish
    Start-to-Finish A logical relationship where a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.
  • Successor Activity
    Successor Activity A dependent activity that logically follows another activity in the project schedule.
  • T-Shaped people The name given to generalizing specialists who can not only perform well in the specific function but also have some skills (and the aptitude) to assist outside of their core role when needed.
  • Team Charter A document that outlines the team values, agreements and practices. Typically including how the team will make decisions, communicate, resolve conflict, meet, shared hours and tools.
  • Theory of Constraints A branch of production science and project management focused on improving efficiency and output. It is based on the successive identification and removal of constraints to raise overall system throughput.
  • Threat
    Threat A risk that would have a negative effect if it occurs.
  • User Story
    User Story A short description of deliverable value for a specific user. It is a promise for a conversation to clarify details.
  • Value Stream
    Value Stream A view of the business or system that focuses on the flow of value to customers through the delivery of specific products or services.
  • Value Stream Map A visual representation of a process and the actions in each step of the flow of value to customers. It depicts the workflow showing queues, delays, and other forms of non-value-adding effort that create waste and distraction.
  • Variance Analysis
    Variance Analysis An approach for determining the root cause and amount of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
  • Variance at Completion (VAC)
    Variance at Completion (VAC) A projection of the amount of budget overspend or surplus, Calculated as the difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion.
  • WBS
    WBS Work Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical view of the scope of work to be done by the project team to achieve the project goals and create the required outcomes.
  • WBS Dictionary
    WBS Dictionary A document that provides information about each element in the work breakdown structure. Details can include deliverables, activities and scheduling information.
  • Work Package
    Work Package The work at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure that has cost and duration estimates.
  • Workaround
    Workaround A temporary response to an issue, when a previous response did not work well or had not been planned.

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